CADR Adjudication


Everything you need to Know about Adjudication.

Adjudication is a contractual or statutory procedure for swift interim dispute resolution. It is provided by a third-party adjudicator selected by the parties in dispute.

Adjudication is often subject to a strict timetable and may be based purely on documentary submissions (see  NEC Engineering and Construction Contract, option W2). However, adjudicators can adopt an inquisitorial role which may involve taking the initiative in ascertaining facts and law.

Adjudication decisions are binding unless and until they are revised by arbitration or litigation. There is no right of appeal and limited right to resist enforcement. Award of legal costs is at the adjudicator’s discretion adjudicatoradjudicator unless the terms of the contract exclude this contractcontract. Based on the decision and written information received from both parties, the process can take up to 28 days, and the findings are binding.

Suppose parties to a construction contract do not agree on an adjudication procedure. In that case, the construction contract does  not agree on an adjudication procedure. One is imposed by statute (see the Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act 1996 Part II Section 108 and the Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act 2009 Part 8, which took effect in England and Wales in October 2011 and  Scotland in November 2011).

Contractual adjudication procedures must comply with Section 108 of the Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act.

The adjudicator is either named in the contract, agreed by the parties or appointed by a nominating body, usually called in the contract (see, for example, the Technology and Construction Solicitors Association (TSCA), which has developed its own Adjudication Rules (now version 3.1).

Suppose the parties do not agree on procedural rules which comply with the Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act. In that case, the Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act, then  Act imposes the regulations set out in the Scheme for Construction Contracts.

Advantages and disadvantages


  • The parties can select the expert or the characteristics of the expert.
  • The expert can act as an investigator.
  • Seldom lengthy oral arguments or legal submissions.
  • No cross examination or formal evidence.
  • Streamlined, speedy and flexible procedures as agreed between the parties.
  • Less expensive.


Section 108 - key adjudication provisions

Section 108 of the Act

Section 108 (2) – stipulates that the contractual scheme for adjudication should

The scheme for construction contracts



Related disputes

Objection to adjudicator

Powers of adjudicator

  • To open up, revise and reviewcertificates unless the contract provides that they are final and conclusive.
  • To decide and order paymentof sums due under the contract.
  • To decide whether interest should be paid.

NB: In 2017, the Construction Industry Council (CIC) published a new Users’ Guide to Adjudication, providing a general introduction to adjudication in the context of construction contracts, and in particular the right to adjudication in the UK and Northern Ireland.

In the case of Michael J Lonsdale (Electrical) Limited v Bresco Electrical Services Limited (In Liquidation) [2018] EWHC 2043 (TCC), Mr Justice Fraser QC ruled that where there are claims and cross claims between the parties to a contract, a claim cannot be settled by adjudication because it is not a claim under the contract and so an adjudicator could rule on it.

NB The Global Construction Disputes Report published by Arcadis in 2019 found that the UK remains the jurisdiction with the shortest average length of time to solve a dispute at 12.8 months, and that the average value of disputes in the UK has fallen 47% to US$ 17.9 million. Negotiation remains the preferred method of resolution.